Richard Hooker

RICHARD HOOKER (1554–1600) and NATURAL LAW
Robert Faulkner, Boston College

Richard Hooker’s one book, Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity (1593-1662), constitutes the most important theological defense of Anglicanism’s Protestant via media.  Hooker would restore to Protestants something of the Aristotelian judiciousness that Thomas Aquinas three centuries earlier sought for Roman Catholics. As part of this effort, the Laws sets forth prominently a “Law of Reason,” which “men commonly use to call the Law of Nature” (I.8.9).[1]

Hooker’s defense of England’s Elizabethan religious establishment was chiefly directed at Calvinist reformers for whom the only important law was “sacred scripture” (I.16.5). These dissenters especially attacked church governance by bishops and by a monarch as supreme head; such violated the Biblical model. Hooker thought this denial of reasonable discretion in secondary things both inflammatory and impolitic. He feared for a Christianity weakened within by religious strife while facing dangers without; he feared the renaissance of classical philosophy and politics; he feared not least the rise of politiques moved by a peculiarly anti-Christian Machiavellianism (V.2.1-3). In response, Hooker adapted Aristotle to his Christian purposes. The result seemed so politic and reasonable that John Locke, in the Treatise of Civil Government, famously justified rational government and natural rights with sixteen quotations from “the judicious Hooker.” But Locke’s Enlightenment rationalism is not Hooker’s Christian rationalism.

Hooker’s law of reason, like Thomas’s law of nature, is derived from the eternal law by which God governs all things. While Hooker does distinguish between eternal law and natural law, though the “learned” (including Thomists) did not (I.3.1), the distinction does not amount to much. For Hooker, the eternal law appoints the kind of thing and thus its regular working or operation (I.2.1). The natural law is the kind itself—the very regularity of operation. This distinction brings out a certain independence of created beings, self-guided by laws of their nature that our reason may discover. Accordingly, Hooker also replaces the common definition of law, command by an authority, with “a directive rule unto goodness of operation” (I.8.4).  Nevertheless, direction and even divine command remain. All natural operations, by “this second law eternal,” are guided “by the first eternal law,” (I.3.1) by which God, for good reason, has bound himself. Although we cannot always perceive the reason and the divine efficiency (I.3.4, I.2.5, I.8.11), we are nevertheless obliged in the second law by the divine direction in the first.

Still, we may know natural duties naturally, without “revelation supernatural and divine,” if we will only put in the effort (I.16.1). Moved by natural inclinations, exercising natural reason (I.5, I.6), and being steadfast of will (I.7), we can reason rightly to the chief mandates (I.8), especially when we call to mind the great reward, eternal life, that follows from observing reason’s laws (I.9).

Human beings incline to a three-fold perfection, of which Hooker gives two interpretations. Initially he speaks of inclinations to continue in being (through offspring), to act like God (according to a certain exactness and order), and, unlike the animals, to exercise virtue and know truth for their own sake (I.5.2, 3).  (Aquinas’s version had set forth inclinations to preserve oneself, to keep the species in being through offspring, and to engage in society and to know the truth about God.)[2] Hooker’s second formulation lists inclinations sensual, intellectual, and, finally, “spiritual and divine”: things to which we naturally if vaguely incline here, during our earthly life, but cannot naturally clarify or obtain here (I.11.4).

Our actual knowledge of reason’s law comes not from inclination as such, however, but from reason’s calculations and clarifications. Prior to sound reasoning, the mind is of “utter vacuity” as to moral knowledge (I.6.1). Hooker thus departs from Aquinas’s doctrine of a natural conscience (synderesis), a practical intelligence that grasps practical principles as intelligence grasps species or kinds of things.[3] Nor does Hooker recur to an Aristotelian account of moral virtue as habitual dispositions bred by practice, especially through good upbringing. For Hooker, it is reasoning that finds the moral law, especially if we supplement natural reason with the “art of Aristotelical demonstration” (I.6.3n).

Despite his initial exposition of natural inclination, Hooker distinguishes sharply between rational will and sensible “appetite,” and then emphasizes the will’s freedom to choose the rational way. Admittedly, sensible goodness is most apparent, and, moreover, reason discovers easily only few of man’s many duties (I.7.6). Nevertheless, that which is simply against the immutable law of God and nature is never allowable in any person, “more than adultery, blasphemy, sacrilege, and the like” (VII.15.14).  For we could know our duty if we would: “no good but has evidence . . . if reason were diligent to search it out” (I.7.7).  The problem is lethargy, the cause is painfulness of inquiry, and the cause of the latter is God’s punishment for our original sin: the “divine malediction” whereby the instruments are weakened. The remedy is determination: “watch, labor” (I.7.7, I.8.11).

What then is this reasoning that all must discover? To begin with, there are evident premises, since each seeks his happiness and can reason out the useful actions. Also, the actions themselves are somewhat evident through marks or signs, that is, everyday intuitions as to what appears fitting or noble and what, when proposed, is generally agreed upon. Hooker praises the Greek word that joins beauty with goodness (kalokagathia), and he instances especially the general persuasion of all (I.8.1-3, I7).  From such premises and signs the “main principles” of nature’s moral law are evident: the greater good is to be chosen before the lesser; the eternal, before the temporal; thus God is to be worshipped, parents are to be honored, and “others to be used by us as we ourselves ‘would by them’” (8.5).

Nevertheless, signs only suggest what is properly discovered by rational inquiry. All such principles are first found out by natural discourse (I.8.5-6). Seeing that better things produce better results, we observe that the soul is better than the body and that its chief and diviner parts should conduct the rest.  So we can reason to a first law. The soul should conduct the body, and the spirits of our minds, the soul (I.8.6).  This leads to the grand mandates: worship God and the golden rule.  “Presupposing” a discourse showing that there is a God of power, force, and wisdom (Hooker supplies proofs from our natural desire for infinite good [I.11.1-6]), and that we need his aid as children need parental aid, we reason to the first commandment: love and worship God (I.8.7).  Similarly, as to the second commandment: supposing men to be equal, and to wish for good from others, how can one expect to receive all good unless he will satisfy others’ like desire (I.8.7)?

This second doctrine of calculated mutual necessities could remind one of Locke’s “fundamental” law of nature, “being the preservation of mankind.”[4] It differs, however.  Hooker’s, unlike Locke’s, is a necessary minimum of morality within a rather Aristotelian teleological hierarchy of activities.  Man is naturally pointed toward perfection, virtue, and a divine end (I.10.4).  Even at the basic level, Hooker’s law prescribes not only mutual defense, as does Locke’s, but also and primarily mutual benefit. Hooker, unlike Locke, makes a theologically informed distinction between primary laws of reason, for “sincere” nature before the fall from innocence, and secondary laws, for our depraved nature. While primary laws prescribe exchange of goods in sociable communion, as well as union with God, secondary laws prescribe acts of defense and of coercive political government. Men “always knew” they might defend themselves against force and injury, band together to repel injuries, and in reason determine their own rights by common consent (I.10.4, 13). (Hooker would reject Locke’s natural right of individuals to execute the law of nature, even by killing, without anyone else’s authorization.)[5] In short, while Locke’s law of reason subserves the rights of mankind, and Aristotle’s natural right prescribes duties necessary for political life, Hooker’s natural law prescribes the duties required especially for a divinely granted afterlife.

It is true that fallen man’s darkened rationality makes harder his natural knowledge of natural duties. “General blindness” prevails even as to manifest laws of reason (I.8.11, I.12.1), and the “greatest part of men” prefers private good, especially sensual good, before whatever is most divine (I.10.5).  Hooker‘s account of reason’s law concludes with chapters reminding the reader of God’s reward and punishment, of the greatness of the reward (eternal continuance), and of scripture’s clarifications of our duties. Still, even these divine powers can be naturally known. In our “heart or conscience” we rejoice or despair at the prospect of reward or punishment for our deeds. Such hopes and fears could come only from the God who sees all hearts (I.9.2).   Since we naturally desire an infinite happiness that only God could supply, and since natural desire cannot be “utterly frustrate,” we have naturally an inkling of the reward that God provides (I.11.1-5). It is a blessing, then, that God’s scripture has revealed so many natural or rational laws, especially some that no man is able or easily able to find out (I.12.1).

Glossary of Terms

afterlife: a life after the death that ends each human being’s life on earth. The afterlife is of paramount importance in Christianity. Christians believe that those who remain faithful to God during their life on earth will have a blissful, eternal afterlife called “heaven” in which they will know and love God face-to-face, united to God and to all other spiritual creatures that are faithful to God. On the other hand, Christians believe that those who completely reject God and do not repent before they die will be eternally tormented by their decision and remain forever exiled from heaven in a state called “hell.” For Richard Hooker, as for Thomas Aquinas, the natural law is primarily concerned with directing man toward eternal union with God in heaven.

Anglicanism: The branch of Protestantism that adheres to certain religious beliefs shared by Lutherans and Calvinists, but which acknowledges the reigning monarch of England as its governing head. Officially it is called the Church of England. Anglicanism came to be in the 16th century (almost twenty years after the Reformation began in Germany) when King Henry VIII of England declared himself, with the consent of most of the nobility and bishops of England, to be the supreme head of the Church in England. He thereby denied the Catholic position that the pope, the bishop of Rome, is the head of Christianity all over the world and effectively separated organized religion in England from the Catholic Church. Despite this separation, the Church of England retained many aspects of Catholicism, such as government by bishops and certain rituals and devotions of piety. Certain people in England who favored a more Calvinist understanding of Christianity thought that these practices and the king’s rule over the Church should be discarded because they were not commanded in the Bible. Richard Hooker wrote the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity to refute these dissenters. See also CHRISTIANITY, LAWS OF ECCLESIASTICAL POLITY, and PROTESTANTISM.

appetite: an inclination toward or desire for some good. Hooker uses appetite to refer only to desire for sensible goods, whereas Aquinas called the will an appetite as well (“the rational appetite,” that is, the appetite of the intellect or of reason). For Hooker the appetite is lower than the will and therefore subject to it, but sometimes it drives behavior because the will permits it to do so. The appetite can even desire impossible things. See also WILL.

Aquinas, Thomas: A thirteenth-century Catholic Dominican priest, philosopher, and theologian, who used the ethical framework of Aristotle to explain the Catholic Church’s understanding of God’s law for mankind. See also ARISTOTLE and this site’s section on THOMAS AQUINAS.

Aristotelian: Of or related to the philosophy of Aristotle. See also ARISTOTLE.

Aristotle: The fourth-century-BC Greek philosopher famous for his extensive and cogent writings about many philosophical subjects. He is known among other things for his elaboration of a theory of ethical behavior that holds that happiness, rightly understood, is the goal of life. Aristotle understood happiness to be the perfect exercise of the powers of the human person according to an ordering indicated by the purpose (telos in Greek) written into the fabric of human nature. Aristotle’s general name for the various perfections of the soul is translated as “virtue” or perhaps more accurately “excellence.” See also this site’s section on ARISTOTLE.

Biblical: Of or related to the Bible, the sacred scripture of Christianity. See also SACRED SCRIPTURE.

bishop: From the Greek word episcopos, meaning “overseer.” For Roman Catholics and Anglicans, a leader of a Christian church that is a successor to (or claims to be a successor to) one of the twelve Apostles, the men appointed by Jesus of Nazareth to govern Christianity in all matters of belief, practice, and worship. Bishops are usually made bishops in a ritual conducted by another bishop that passes on the authority of the Apostles. See also CHRISTIANITY, ROMAN CATHOLICS, and ANGLICANISM.

Calvinist: Of or related to the teachings of John Calvin, a sixteenth-century French Protestant who developed the teachings of Martin Luther into a distinct branch of the Reformation that came to be known as Calvinism. Calvinists believe, among other things, that congregations of Christian worshippers should be governed by elected “presbyters” or “elders,” not bishops, and certainly not by a monarch. They believe this on the more fundamental belief that only the words of the Bible may determine the Christians’ beliefs and practice. Calvinists in Richard Hooker’s time believed that the governing structure of the Church of England contradicted the words of the Bible. See also CHRISTIANITY, PROTESTANT.

Christianity: The group of all individuals, called Christians, who believe that there is one God in three persons. They also believe that one of those divine persons became a true human being as Jesus of Nazareth, a Jewish man who lived in the Roman province of Palestine in the first century A.D., and who was executed by crucifixion by order of the Roman governor Pontius Pilate. They believe that three days after he died, Jesus came back to life transformed, with power to forgive the sins of all who would submit themselves to his kingship and reject that of the lead fallen angel, Satan, to whom the human race had become enslaved after their rebellion (or “sin”) against God’s law. Christians believe that if they remain faithful to Jesus to the end of their lives they will grow in friendship with him and share his eternal, transformed life after death in a blissful union with God called heaven. Christians believe many other things in addition, but those beliefs vary by group. Catholics, Calvinists, and Anglicans represent some of the larger groups within Christianity. See also ROMAN CATHOLICS, CALVINISTS, and ANGLICANISM.

demonstration: in the philosophy of Aristotle (and Aquinas), the correct deduction of a conclusion by applying the rules of logic to true premises. Also known simply as a proof.

Elizabethan religious establishment: The system of religious belief, practice, and worship that existed in England under the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, during the second half of the sixteenth century. During Elizabeth’s reign the Church of England continued to be governed by a body of bishops who were under the authority of the monarch, as had been the case during the latter part of the reign of her father, King Henry VIII. See also ANGLICANISM, BISHOP.

Enlightenment, The: The philosophical movement that began with the writings of Francis Bacon, René Descartes, and Thomas Hobbes in the early seventeenth century and ended with the work of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant at the end of the eighteenth century. Descartes, for example, rejected the philosophical training he received from his teachers, who were heirs to late medieval philosophy; he took seriously the doubts of radical skeptics that he thought medieval philosophy could not answer. He tried to reconstruct knowledge based on what he thought could be proven and explained by human reason alone with an almost mathematical certainty. He concluded that the world was made up of minds and bodies but he could not prove how the two were connected. His work inspired a number of other philosophers who continued his project over the course of two centuries. They all more or less accepted that one must systematically doubt everything before investigating philosophical questions; and that only that which could be understood by human reason ought to be accepted as true. John Locke was one of the philosophers of the Enlightenment. See also LOCKE and RATIONALISM.

fall from innocence, the: in Christian belief, the original sin of the first human beings, Adam and Eve, who tasted of the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge, by which they and the whole human race (their children) fell from the innocence and friendship with God in which God had created them. Christians usually refer to this simply as “the Fall.” See also ORIGINAL SIN.

golden rule, the: The commandment of Jesus from the Sermon on the Mount that, he said, summed up the moral teaching of the Jewish scriptures: “Do unto others what you would have them do unto you” (Matt. 7:12; Luke 6:31). For Hooker, this rule and the command to worship God are the two most basic principles of the natural law.

hierarchy: an ordering of the parts of a whole in which some parts are subordinated to others, with one part standing supreme over all the other parts. Aristotelian ethical theory claims that there is a hierarchy among the various ends or goods of human nature: there are many parts of human life, but some are more important than others. For Hooker and other Christian Aristotelians, the highest end or good of man is the love of God, and all other aspects of human life should aim toward this end. Prof. Faulkner refers to this notion of ordered ends as a “teleological hierarchy.” See also ARISTOTLE.

kalokagathia: ancient Greek for “beauty-and-goodness” from kalòs kaì agathós meaning “beautiful (or noble) and good.”  It refers to the highest kind of goodness or beauty, pointing to the fact that the highest goodness is also most beautiful and that the highest beauty is also that which is most good. Hooker commends this word because we ordinarily use the word “good” to refer to what is simply beneficial, whereas what is most truly good is, like beauty, desirable for its own sake.

Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity: The book in which Richard Hooker sets forth, among other things, his understanding of natural law. John Locke quoted this book sixteen times in his Second Treatise of Civil Government, which in turn strongly influenced the thinking of America’s Founding Fathers. Hooker began to write the Laws in 1593, but the final version was not published until 1662, long after his death in 1600.

Locke, John: A seventeenth-century English government official who wrote influential philosophical works about religious toleration, the nature of government, and the source and nature of individual political rights. His writings, most famously his Second Treatise of Civil Government, profoundly influenced the thought of America’s Founding Fathers. For instance, he is credited with formulating man’s three basic political rights as the rights to life, liberty, and property, which were translated into the Declaration of Independence as “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” Important aspects of Locke’s thought could seeminfluenced strongly by the thought of Richard Hooker, despite the primacy Hooker gives to law and dutyLocke quoted Hooker’s Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity sixteen times in the Treatise of Civil Government to justify his notions of rational government and natural rights. See also LAWS OF ECCLESIASTICAL POLITY, TREATISE OF CIVIL GOVERNMENT, and the section of this site on the thought of JOHN LOCKE.

Machiavellianism: A philosophy of government that holds that government officials should be willing to commit moral evil if it seems necessary to defend the interests of the state that they serve. It derives its name from that of Niccolò Machiavelli, the author in the early sixteenth century of influential works that defended this thesis and were read extensively by European statesmen and philosophers thereafter. Machiavelli had a profound influence on the course of all European politics and international relations that came after him. See also the section of this site on MACHIAVELLI, GUICCIARDINI, and REASON OF STATE.

original sin: according to Christianity, the first sin of mankind against God, committed by the first two human beings, Adam and Eve, who ate from the Tree of Knowledge contrary to God’s command. Original sin also refers to the subsequent state of enmity toward God in which all human beings are born, and which can only be removed by baptism in the name of God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Christians like Hooker believe that the pain associated with work is one of the punishing effects of original sin.

politiques: Statesmen or politicians who are willing to break ethical or religious principles in order to achieve their political goals.

Protestant: Of or related to Protestantism, the group of all the Christian communities that trace their origin to the Reformation movement begun by Martin Luther in 16th-century Germany to reform the Catholic Church. The Reformation eventually separated from the Catholic Church and divided again into distinct communities that varied according to their different religious beliefs. Among other matters on which they agree, they more or less agree that the words of the Bible alone are authoritative for determining religious belief and practice (and the teachings of the Catholic pope and bishops are not authoritative). The three major branches of Protestantism are Lutheranism, Calvinism, and Anglicanism. See also ANGLICANISM, CALVINIST.

rational: reasonable, according to reason, or having to do with reason.

rationalism: In general, the belief that one ought to accept as true only that which can be proven and understood by human reason. A strict rationalist refuses to accept anything on another’s word without understanding it for himself. The word may sometimes be used, as it is in Prof. Faulkner’s essay, to mean the position that human reason can know truth accurately, and that one ought to try to understand reality and act according to reason as much as possible. In this latter sense Hooker was a rationalist because he believed that reason should be used to apply truths of faith to life in the world. Hooker was not, however, a rationalist in the first sense, because he believed that it was permissible to accept religious truths on faith and to govern a society by those truths. Many thinkers of the Enlightenment subscribed to the first meaning of rationalism. See also ENLIGHTENMENT.

revelation: A direct communication of truth from God to human beings by means beyond humans’ natural capacity of reasoning. The contents of sacred scriptures (such as the Bible) are an example of revelation.

Roman Catholics: Members of the Roman Catholic Church (sometimes simply called the Catholic Church). Roman Catholics (sometimes simply called Catholics) are Christians who believe and profess, as being divinely and unerringly inspired, everything that the bishops that are in communion with the bishop of Rome, called the pope, teach concerning what individuals must believe and do in order to live in God’s friendship, escape eternal damnation, and attain eternal happiness with God after their lives end. Roman Catholics believe, unlike Anglicans, that the pope holds final authority throughout the world to judge all matters pertaining to Christians’ beliefs, internal government, and worship. See also ANGLICANISM, CHRISTIANITY.

sacred scripture: Writings that claim to have been divinely inspired. The sacred scripture of Christianity is called the Bible.

soul: as Richard Hooker uses the term in the quotation that Prof. Faulkner provides in this essay, “soul” means only the powers of sensation and movement that all animals (not just humans) possess. Here Hooker uses the term “soul” in a way that is more common in the Bible. This definition does not include the powers of reason (intellect) and will that today many people normally include when they speak of the “soul.” For the Bible and Hooker, reason and will are said to reside rather in the “spirit” of a human being, even though there remains just one human being unified by one principle of life. Aquinas, on the other hand, using more Aristotelian terms, referred to the powers of animals as “the animal soul” and the powers peculiar to human beings as “the rational soul.”  See also SPIRIT OF OUR MIND.

spirit of our mind: the term used by Richard Hooker to refer to the powers of reason (intellect) and will that that are unique to human beings, in contrast to non-rational animals. Aquinas called these powers “the rational soul.” See also SOUL.

synderesis: According to Thomas Aquinas and other medieval philosophers, the habit of knowing the most basic principles of moral behavior, such as “pursue good and avoid evil” and “do not kill the innocent.” Aquinas said that every human being has this knowledge because it is written into the fabric of human nature and therefore can never be fully erased. However, because it is a habit, it can grow stronger if one repeatedly does what is right, or weaker if one repeatedly commits evil. See also AQUINAS.

teleological: having to do with “teleology,” that is, a theory of the purposes, goals, or ends of human nature that indicate what is good or bad behavior. In a teleological theory of ethics, good behavior is that which fulfills human nature’s built-in ends and bad behavior frustrates those ends. Aristotle formulated the most famous teleological theory of ethics. See also ARISTOTLE.

theological: related to theology, the study of God based on what unaided human reason can know of him and the study of any truths that God has revealed about himself, especially truths revealed in sacred scripture. See also SACRED SCRIPTURE.

Thomas: See AQUINAS, THOMAS.

Thomist: A person who largely accepts the principles and conclusions of the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas. See also AQUINAS.

Treatise of Civil Government: One of the most famous works of the seventeenth-century English philosopher John Locke. In the first part of the Treatise Locke attempted to refute the notion that the right of kings to rule derives directly from God. In the second part of the Treatise, called the Second Treatise of Civil Government, Locke put forth his own theory that governments originate from the consent of the individuals who are governed, because those individuals have inalienable rights from God and nature that the state does not create and cannot take away. Any government must serve and protect these rights; if it fails to do so, Locke says, it may be overthrown legitimately. Locke quotes Hooker’s Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity sixteen times to support his theory, which grounded much of the argument behind America’s Declaration of Independence. See also LAWS OF ECCLESIASTICAL POLITY, LOCKE, and the sections of this site on the thought of JOHN LOCKE and the DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.

via media: Literally “the middle way” in Latin. Richard Hooker and others called Anglicanism the via media because, they said, it took a sensible “middle way” between the alleged excesses of Catholicism and continental European Protestantism while retaining the strengths of either side. On the one hand, Anglicanism retained the Catholic Church’s respect for tradition and authority by governing itself through a succession of bishops; but like continental Protestantism it rejected the pope’s claim to have authority over all Christians and accepted certain other Protestant beliefs. See also ANGLICANISM, PROTESTANT.

virtue: a good habit, that is, a habit of doing the right thing at the right time in the right way for the right reason. Specific virtues differ according to the particular aspect under which they look at human behavior. The virtue of fortitude, for instance, is the habit of doing good things that are difficult without hesitating out of cowardice or acting hastily out of foolhardiness. The ancient Greek and medieval philosophical tradition that Hooker inherited identified four major virtues: temperance (the regulation of desire), fortitude (the regulation of fear), justice (to give each his due), and prudence (to act in accord with right reason).

will: the capacity to choose. For Hooker the object of the will that is most proper to it is that which reason determines to be good. He distinguishes the will sharply from the “appetite,” whose proper object is the sensible good. Aquinas, on the other hand said that the will was itself an appetite whose proper object is the rational good. Hooker says that the will is free because it can accept or refuse a possible course of action that is presented to it; even if appetite overpowers the will, it can do so only because the will allows it. Because the will deals in higher, rational goods, it can force the appetite into submission. The will never chooses what reason tells it to be impossible. See also APPETITE.

Endnotes

[1] References are to the now standard divisions by book, chapter, and section, in the Laws, Preface and Books I-IV, edited by Georges Edelen, in The Folger Library Edition of The Works of Richard Hooker, general editor W. Speed Hill (Cambridge and London, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1977).  Spelling in the quotations is modernized.

[2] Summa Theologica, trans. Anton C. Pegis (New York: Random House, 1944) I, II. Qu. 94, Art. 2.

[3] Ibid., I, II Qu. 94, Art. 2,3; Qu. 90, Art. Ad 3, 4, ad 1.

[4] John Locke, Two Treatises of Government, ed. Peter Laslett (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 2T 135.

[5] Ibid., 2T 7-9.